Vital Signs




  • One inspiration and expiration cycle is counted as one breath
  • Normal Breathing is effortless, quiet, and regular
  • Breathing patterns: 




Peripheral: identify pulse rhythm, volume, and rate 

Apical: listen with the diaphragm of stethoscope

  • Locate apex of heart, usually at the left 5th intercostal at the midclavicular line

Heart Location

  • Note strength and regularity of rhythm

  • Count rate (count one full minute if the rhythm is irregular)



Blood Pressure

How blood pressure works: 

          HowStuffWorks Article 

Blood Pressure Devices: 

          Baxter - A variety of Blood Pressure Devices